Geographically, Shiloh was the location where the tabernacle rested for 369 years before the Temple was built in Jerusalem. It is always spoken of in the Old Testament in this geographic sense except here in Genesis 49:10. For in this verse alone, Shiloh is not a place but a person! The NIV correctly translates “Shiloh” for us as “He to whom it belongs.”
Jesus – our Shiloh – the coming King of Kings will possess the scepter – the right to rule – a royal symbol of authority.
Note the timeline also given here: this scepter – this right to rule given to Judah through various kings including David and Solomon over the years – “will NOT depart from Judah” until the one to whom it belongs comes.
The tribe of Judah along with all the tribes were scattered from their land by the Roman Empire in 70 A.D. and, with the destruction of the Temple, soon lost the ability to trace their genealogy or tribal roots. So, from this side of history, we see this prophecy had to be fulfilled prior to 70 A.D.